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Here are some great facts from our Level 3 Diploma in Personal Training.


The sexual glands in males and females release important hormones that bring about the physical changes typically witnessed during puberty.

In females, the ovaries release oestrogen and in males, the testes release testosterone.

These hormones also support health during adulthood. They govern vital functions related to growth, repair and storage in the body.


Testosterone in both males and females plays a part in stimulating the growth of muscle tissue, whereas oestrogen influences fat storage around the hips, buttocks and thighs.

Males produce up to 10 times more testosterone than females and this is primarily responsible for the development for the male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial / body hair and greater muscle mass.

The Normal Range of Testosterone in males is 280 to 1,100 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL).

The Normal Range of Estrogen in males is 21.80 and 30.11 (pg/mL).

Any range below or higher than the given range can be a risk in Males.


A Positive Testosterone balance in Males:

  • It helps to increase the sex drive.
  • Increase the Bone Mass.
  • Improves the distribution of fat in males.
  • Increase the Muscle Size and Strength.
  • Helps in the production of Red Blood Cells.


A Negative Testosterone balance in Males:

  • Sexual Desire Decreases.
  • The size of Libido becomes diminished.
  • Erectile Dysfunction.
  • Big changes in sleep patterns.
  • Low self-confidence & motivation.
  • Depression and anger.
  • Muscle Mass Decreases.
  • Body hair becomes less.
  • Bone Mass Decreases.
  • Uneven Distribution of fat.


Women of reproductive age have significantly higher levels of oestrogen than males, given rise to female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle.

The Normal Range of Testosterone in Females is from 15 to 70(ng/dL).

The Normal Range of Estrogen Levels in Females is from 50-40 (picograms per milliliter).

Any range below or higher than the given range can be a risk in Females.


A Positive Oestrogen balance in Females:

  • An increase in Breast Size.
  • Wider Hips.
  • Pubic & Armpit Hair.
  • Regulate the Menstrual Cycle.
  • Strengthen the Bones of females.
  • Helps in Blood Clotting.
  • Maintain the thickness of Vaginal Wall.


A Negative Oestrogen balance in Females:

  • Infertility increases.
  • Loss of hair on the scalp.
  • Body Pain rises.
  • The growth of Facial Hair.
  • The size of Breasts diminish.
  • Change in the mood.
  • Headache & depression.
  • Low Focussing Power.
  • Increase in Fatigue.
  • Irregular or Absent Periods.


Both hormones also play a role in directing bone growth during puberty and in adulthood. The correct balance of sex hormones is necessary for good health as a teenager and as an adult.


Hope you enjoyed these quick facts!



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